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                1. 当前位置:随笔吧>文言文>孟子> 孟子·告子上·第二节

                  孟子·告子上·第二节

                  《孟子·告子上·第二节》文言文全文

                  告子曰:“性犹湍水也,决诸东方则东流,袂诸西方则西流。人性之无分于善不善也,犹水之无分于东西也?!?/p>

                  孟子曰:“水信无分于东西。无分于上下乎?人性之善也,犹水之就下也。人无有不善,水无有不下。今夫水,搏而跃之,可使过颡;激而行之,可使在山。是岂水之性哉?其势则然也。人之可使为不善,其性亦犹是也?!?/p>

                  《孟子·告子上·第二节》全文翻译

                  告子说:“人性就好比是水势急速的水流,在东边冲开缺口就向东流,在西边冲开缺口就向西流。所以人性没有善不善之分,就好比水没有流向东西方之分?!?/p>

                  孟子说:“水流确实没有东流西流之分,但是没有上流下流之分吗?人的本性是善良的,就好比是向下流淌一样。人的本性没有不善良的,水的本性没有不向下流淌的。如今的水,被击打就可以溅得很高,可以使它高过额头;堵塞水道使它倒行,就可以使它流上山岗。难道这是水的本性吗?是形势使它这样的。人之所以可以使他不善良,其本性的变化也是一样的?!?/p>

                  《孟子·告子上·第二节》注释

                  湍:(tuan穿)《楚辞·抽思》:“长濑湍流?!薄痘茨献印に瞪健罚骸暗旧谒?,而不能生于湍濑之流?!薄妒芳恰ず忧椤罚骸八暮??!薄端滴摹罚骸巴?,疾濑也?!闭饫镉梦萍彼僦?。

                  《孟子·告子上·第二节》评析

                  值得我们特别注意的,是孟子的雄辩风范。随口接过论敌的论据而加以发挥,以水为喻就以水为喻。就好比我们格斗时说,你用刀咱们就用刀,你用枪咱们就用枪。欲擒故纵,持之有故,言之成理?!八盼薹钟诙?。无分于上下平?”一语杀入穴道,只需要轻轻一转,其论证便坚不可移,使读者读来,不得不束手就擒。于是,我们便都是性善论者了。

                  只不过,当我们放下书本而面对现实生活中的种种邪恶时,的确又会发出疑问:人性真如孟老夫子所描述的那般善良,那般纯洁得一尘不染吗?这种时候,我们即便不会成为苟子“性恶论”的信徒,多半也会同意告子的观点了罢:“人性之无分于善不时, 犹水之无分于东西也?!?/p>

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